Summary of the Video
The Elegant Universe
These seems as the evolution of science to world, and collaboration of ideas from the scientist. All the theory is behind the way in which the Universe operates and this still remains controversial issue. Because most of the scientists have proposed scientific theories which explain how the Universe operate. Scientists proposed the functioning of the Universe by explaining different forces that made the Universe exist. Different scientists from different institutions came up with their findings about the functioning of the Universe.
Most of the scientist was the world known scientists who have formulated formulae explaining the interactions of forces in different planet of the Universe. These include Albert Estein, Isaac Newton, and Niels Bohr. In the process of trying to explain how the Universe functions, four forces were introduced. These forces include the force of gravity, electro-magnetism, nuclear and weak forces. In order to find the solution on how the Universe works, scientists try to unify all of the above mentioned forces together.
According Albert Estein the Universe operate in a predictive way he further compare the universe with the string as it vibrate so does the Universe in order to make all the planets of the earth to function. That is where the string theory began.
At the age of 26, another prominent scientist by the name of Isaac Newton came up with his three laws, in which he says that there is a pulling force and pushing force. According to Newton, the force of gravity pulls all the particles towards the centre of the Earth. Newton also gave us an example of an apple which was falling off from the tree, which was falling because of the two forces acting on the apple, the push and the pulling forces.
He also talk about the speed of light in which he mention that there is nothing that can go faster than the speed of the light, because the speed of the light is about 3*108m/s, explains Brian Green from Columbia University. Green further continued by saying that if light travels in such a high speed, gravitational disturbance will form the waves. How fast gravity travels led to the formulation of the general relativity.
The theory of Newton led to Maxwell to come up with the theory of Electromagnetic force, which is the combination of electricity and magnet. Maxwell further mentions that when the light is moving, it creates dots and dash. Therefore four simple equations, which is gravity; electromagnetism and string were combined to form one equation.
In 1920s the Swedish scientist by the name of Niel’s Bohr disagreed with both Newton and Estein in that the Universe behave in a predictable way, says Amanda Peet from the University of Toronto. Bohr said that elements consist of the smallest particles called atoms. Therefore, Bohr came up the theory of quantum mechanics which predicts the chance or probability about the description of how the Universe works.
In 1930s, it was also discovered that gravity and electromagnetism are not the only forces which describes how the world works, says Nima Arkani from Harvard University. The other forces include the nuclear force which consists of protons and neutrons and the weak force. In 1933, Michael Green from the University of Cambridge explains the theory of quantum mechanics theory; the Universe is formed as a result of the big bang some 14billion years ago. As a result the Universe gets small.
Michael Duff from the University of Michigan says the two laws of physics combine to form to explain the behaviour of the earth referring to the general relativity plus quantum mechanics. In 1968, Brian Veneziano made an accidental discovery of how the Universe works, but later on agreed that his discovery was not true. Veneziano says the force of nature can be explained by the small particles or photons, but at the same time the string theory was not getting off the ground. In 1973 after five years, massless particles anomalies were found not be true. In 1984 to 1985 the string theory was loosing the steam again.
The issue of how the Universe works still remains controversial. This is because different scientists try to merge different questions in describing how the universe functions without reaching the final conclusion. Scientists were also disagreeing with each other about the functioning of the Universe.